Tropical Disease Cairns

Tropical Disease Cairns


The lymphatic system – The normal antigen antibody response which provides immunity, sometimes goes wrong. This leads to three problems:


• autoimmunity

• tissue rejection.


Allergic reaction to a substance can occur at any time even when the body has been exposed to it for The antigens which cause an allergic reaction are called allergens. Some common causes of alle eaction are milk, eggs, strawberries, cosmetics, plants and house dust. Immediate reactions may be localised reddening of the skin, oedema, watery eyes, runny nose, bronchial asthma, dermatitis or hives. The most severe reaction anaphylactic shock, r threatening effects such as asphyxia.

There is a huge increase in the number of people suffering from allergies. It is becoming a very common disorder as people are being constantly exposed to pollutants and irritants in the environment and chemicals in their food. Many clients complain of r>; conditio] ^uch eczema, metals, make-up, certain foods, animals and dust.

Tropical Disease Cairns

Autoimmune disease

Occasionally, breaks down and an abnormal immune response which are seen as foreign. Autoimmune diseases include rheumatoid arthritis, lupus, rheumatic fever, pernicious anaemia

nd multiple sclerosis.

Tropical Disease Cairns


Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) is a disease which, lowers the body’s immune system. It is caused by the Human Immunodeficiency Virus It is possible to remain healthy and live with HIV I positive) for many years, but the virus attacks res’ (Hiv positive J ^tem, destroying T4 lymphocytes. Those suffering from this disease are then susceptible to many different illnesses such a as general malaise, sic in c cancer and pneumonia.

For this virus to be transmitted, there has to be a for this virus to be transmitted,

through normal day-to-day contact. If infected blood tissue fluid enters a break in the skin It is also transmitted through infected hypodermic needles.

Tissue rejection

After an organ transplant, the body recognises the In new tissues as foreign and produces antibodies re against them. This is often treated with immuno’ suppressive drugs.

Lvmphatic disease

Some common illnesses and diseases such as cancer, and heart, digestive and kidney diseases are directly affected by the proper health and functioning of the lymphatic system. When this system malfunctions, a number of diseases and related conditions may occur.



A condition affecting the lungs which causes walls of the bronchioles to swell and produce mucus* result! Wheezing and difficulty with breathing. The bands of muscle around the outside of the bronchioles tighten, further blocking the flow of aii. Cause is often an allergic reaction to pollens, fur or feathers, a change in the weather and respiratory infections.

Allergic rhinitis

An inflammation of the nasal passages resulting in Caused vy an most common being hay fever, ailed in families with eczema and asthma as there is probably an inherited factor that affects the way the immune system reacts to allergens.


This condition occurs when the alveolar walls lose their elasticity and remain Filled, with air when

the the person breathes out. Damage occurs, which then reduces the surface area for normal exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. In severe cases there is extreme breathlessness and, in most cases, it is caused by long-term irritation.

Pulmonary embolism

In this condition a blood clot sticks in the lungs and stricts blood flow, which prevents adequate amounts of oxygen being absorbed into the lungs. Symptoms may be shortness of breath, a cough, which may bring up blood, chest pain when breathing, raised heart rate and sweating.

Tropical Disease Cairns



A condition when bowel evacuation occurs infrequently or when the passage of faeces causes pain or difficulty.


In this condition there is frequent bowel evacuation or the passage of abnormally soft or liquid faeces. This may be caused by intestinal infection or inflammation, irritable bowel syndrome (IBS, see below) or anxiety.


This is an inflammation of the appendix causing iominal pain and tenderness. Vomiting and thr diarrhoea sometimes occur.


This is the acute inflammation of the membrane lining the abdominal cavity caused fry bacteria an spread as a result of an accident, surgical wounds or le rupture of the appendix.


This is a protrusion of an organ or tissue from the body cavity in which it lies.


This is inflammation of the diverticula (small It is lsed by infection and results in abdominal pain* constipation and diarrhoea.


These are solid lumps or ‘stones’ that collect in the bile ducts or gall bladder, causing pain, nausea and vomiting. They develop when the chemical composition of bile is upset.

Ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease

These are both conditions in which there is a longterm inflammation of the digestive tract. Disease may affect any part of the digestive tract from the mouth to the anus, while ulcerative colitis affects only the colon and rectum. These conditions are classified as autoimmune disease and often run in families.

Tropical Disease Cairns


This is an inflammation of the liver, which may be acute (a sudden crisis) or chronic (a prolonged ill Both types are most commonly caused by viruses or excessive intake of alcohol.

The three most common hepatitis viruses are known as hepatitis A, B and c.

Hepatitis A is caused by ingesting (taking in through the mouth) the virus through contaminated food and water or using through contaminated food and water or using contaminated cutlery.

Permanent damage to the liver. Hepatitis B is more often causes extensive liver damage. It is and the most common methods of cross-infection are sexual contact with an infected person and contaminated needles.

An infected person and contaminated needles. Much less frequently it may be contracted through needles or ear piercing.

Hepatitis spreads in the same way as the B virus; it almost always leads to chronic hepatitis and liver damage, although initially the effects are less severe are those of the A and B viruses.

Tropical Disease Cairns

Hepatitis caused by excessive alcohol can be acute or chronic, and contribute to cirrhosis of the liver. Hepatitis may also occur as a result of some rare H genetic disorders or autoimmune diseases. There are a range of symptoms including fatigue, headaches, loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting and fever. As the disease progresses, other symptoms include jaundice, brown urine and abdominal pain.

Tropical Disease Cairns


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